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The result of an eight-year worldwide survey, the exhibition draws together more than spectacular black and white photographs of wildlife, landscapes, seascapes, and indigenous peoples—raising public awareness about the pressing issues of environment and climate change.

During his travels across the globe, he documented arctic and desert landscapes, tropical rainforests, marine and other wildlife, and communities still living according to ancestral traditions.

Together, the images form a stunning mosaic of nature in unspoiled grandeur. Through these photographs, Salgado pays homage to a fragile planet he believes we must all protect.

Join our mailing list. ICP Updates. You can change your mind at any time by clicking the unsubscribe link in the footer of any email you receive from us, or by contacting us at digitalcontent icp.

We will treat your information with respect. For more information, read our Privacy Policy. The execution of the French former king Louis XVI on 21 January by the revolutionaries precipitated an international response.

Both treaties pledged mutual aid against revolutionary France and brought six thousand Portuguese soldiers into the War of the Pyrenees — , a campaign that began with an advance to Roussillon in France and ended in defeat with the French conquest of northeastern Spain.

This created a delicate diplomatic problem, as Portugal could not make peace with France without damaging an alliance with England that involved several overseas interests.

The Portuguese thus sought a neutrality that proved fragile and tense. After the defeat, Spain abandoned its alliance with Portugal and allied with France under the Peace of Basel.

With Britain too powerful for France to attack directly, France set its sights on Portugal. With John's refusal, neutrality became unviable.

Spain and France invaded in , setting off the War of the Oranges ; a defeated Portugal signed the Treaty of Badajoz and the subsequent Treaty of Madrid , under which it ceded territory to Spain, in particular Olivenza , and made concessions to the French over certain colonial territories.

Portugal, as the weakest player, could not avoid continued struggle. His wife, Carlota Joaquina, loyal to Spanish interests, initiated an intrigue with the objective of deposing her husband and taking power herself, an attempt that failed in This resulted in the Princess's exile from court; she resided at Queluz Palace , while the regent took up residency at Mafra Palace.

The prince regent played a desperate game with France for time. For as long as he could, he pretended an apparent submission to France, to the point of suggesting to King George III of the United Kingdom the declaration of a fictitious state of war between their countries, but he did not obey the dictates of Napoleon's Continental System a blockade against Great Britain.

A new secret treaty with the British guaranteed him help in case of an eventual flight of the royal family. The accord greatly favored the British and preserved their influence over the country, as the United Kingdom continued to make vast profits in trade with the Portuguese intercontinental empire.

It fell to Portugal only to choose between obedience to France or to England, and the hesitancy to decide firmly placed Portugal at risk of war with not merely one of these powers, but with both.

In October , news arrived that a French army was approaching, and on 16 November, a British squadron arrived in the port of Lisbon with a force of seven thousand men with orders either to escort the royal family to Brazil or, if the government surrendered to France, to attack and conquer the Portuguese capital.

The court was divided between Francophiles and Anglophiles, and after anguished consideration under pressure from both sides, John decided to accept British protection and leave for Brazil.

The invading army led by Jean-Andoche Junot advanced with some difficulty, arriving at the gates of Lisbon only on 30 November The hasty departure during a rainstorm caused havoc in Lisbon as an astonished population could not believe that their prince had abandoned them.

He wanted to speak and could not; he wanted to move and, convulsed, did not succeed in taking a step; he walked over an abyss, and envisioned a future dark and as uncertain as the ocean to which he was about to deliver himself.

Country, capital, kingdom, vassals, he was about to leave all of these suddenly, with little hope of setting eyes on them again, and all were thorns that pierced his heart.

To explain himself to the people, John ordered that posters be put up along the streets stating that his departure was unavoidable despite all efforts made to assure the integrity and peace of the kingdom.

The posters recommended that everyone remain calm, orderly and not resist the invaders, so that blood not be shed in vain. This was an imprudent decision given the dangers of a transatlantic voyage in that era, since it placed at risk the succession of the crown in case of shipwreck.

Carlota Joaquina and the infantas were on two other ships. Still, the ships were overcrowded. According to Pedreira e Costa, taking into account all of the variables, the most likely numbers fall between four and seven thousand passengers plus the crews.

Many families were separated, and even high officials failed to secure a place on the ships and were left behind. The voyage was not a tranquil one.

Several ships were in precarious condition, and overcrowding created humiliating conditions for the nobility, the majority of whom had to sleep huddled in the open in the poops.

Hygienic conditions were bad, including an epidemic of head lice. Many had failed to bring changes of clothing.

Several people fell ill. Supplies were scarce, causing rationing. Furthermore, the flotilla spent ten days nearly becalmed in the equatorial zone under a scorching heat that caused moods to turn quite sour.

The flotilla also faced two storms and was eventually dispersed near Madeira. In the middle of the voyage, Prince John changed his plans and decided to head for Salvador, Bahia , probably for political reasons.

He wanted to please the inhabitants of the colony's first capital, which had given many signs of discontent with the loss of its old status.

The ships carrying his wife and the infantas held to the original destination of Rio de Janeiro.

The streets of Salvador were deserted, because the governor, the Count of Ponte, preferred to await the prince's orders before permitting the people to receive him.

Finding this attitude odd, John ordered that all could come as they wished. Britain, however, whose economy depended in great part on maritime commerce, and for whom the Portuguese and Brazilian monarchy was now something of a protectorate, was the most direct beneficiary.

Salvador spent a month in commemorations of the presence of the court and tried to seduce the court into making it the new seat of the kingdom.

The residents offered to construct a luxurious palace as a home for the royal family, but John declined and continued his voyage, having already announced to various nations his intention to make his capital at Rio de Janeiro.

His ship entered Guanabara Bay on 7 March, where he met the infantas and other members of his entourage whose ships had arrived earlier.

On the 8th, the whole court finally disembarked to encounter a city adorned to receive them with nine days of uninterrupted celebrations. If so great were the motives of sorrow and distress, no less were the causes of comfort and pleasure: a new order of things was going to begin this part of the southern hemisphere.

The design of the Empire of Brazil could already be considered in place, and eagerly wished the powerful hand of our lord the Prince Regent to cast the first stone of future greatness, prosperity and power of the new empire.

With a court, the essential apparatus of a sovereign state became inevitable: the senior civil, religious, and military officials, aristocrats and liberal professionals, skilled artisans, and public servants.

For many scholars, the transfer of the court to Rio began the establishment of the modern Brazilian state and constituted Brazil's first step toward true independence.

All the characteristics of that [colonial] regime disappeared, the only remaining part of the colonial situation was to be under a foreign government.

One after another, the old workings of colonial administration were abolished and replaced by those of a sovereign nation. Economic restrictions fell and thoughts of the country's interests moved to the front of government policy.

But first it was necessary to provide accommodations for the newcomers, a difficult problem to resolve given the cramped proportions of the city of Rio at that time.

Though large, it was comfortless and nothing like Portuguese palaces. As large as it was, it was not enough to accommodate everyone, so neighboring buildings were also requisitioned, such as the Carmelite Convent, the town hall, and even the jail.

To meet the needs of other nobles, and to install new government offices, innumerable small residences were hastily expropriated, their proprietors arbitrarily ejected, at times violently in the face of resistance.

Carlota Joaquina, for her part, preferred to settle on a farm near the beach of Botafogo , continuing her habit of living apart from her husband.

The city, which at that time had about 70, inhabitants, saw itself transformed overnight. The additional populace, full of new requirements, imposed a new organization in the supply of food and other consumer goods, including luxury items.

It took years for the Portuguese to settle in, causing years of chaos in the daily life of Rio; rents doubled, taxes rose, and food was in short supply, requisitioned by the imported nobility.

This soon dispelled popular enthusiasm over the prince regent's arrival. The very shape of the city began to change, with the construction of innumerable new residences, villas and other buildings, and various improvements to services and infrastructure.

Likewise, the presence of the court introduced new standards of etiquette, new fashions and new customs, including a new social stratification.

The long lines waiting to pay their respects and receive favors were a mix of nobles and commoners. The vulgarity of the manners, the familiarity of speech, the insistence of some, the prolixity of others, none of this bored him.

He seemed to forget that he was their master, and remember only that he was their father. Throughout his stay in Brazil, John formalized the creation of a huge number of institutions and public services and boosted the economy, culture and other areas of national life.

All these measures were taken principally because of the practical needs of administering a large empire in a territory previously lacking of these resources, because the predominant idea continued to be that Brazil would remain a colony, given that it was expected that the court would return to its old metropolis once the European political situation returned to normal.

However, these advances became the basis for Brazil's future autonomy. A series of political crises began shortly after his arrival with the invasion of Cayenne in French Guiana in in retaliation for the French invasion of Portugal, [44] serious economic problems, and a painful trade agreement imposed in by the British, which in practice flooded the small internal market with useless trinkets and disadvantaged exports and the creation of new national industries.

Also, the court was extravagant and wasteful, accumulated privileges on privileges and maintained a legion of sycophants and adventurers.

British consul James Henderson observed that few European courts were as large as that of Portugal. Laurentino Gomes writes that John granted more hereditary titles in his first eight years in Brazil than had been granted in the previous three hundred years of the Portuguese monarchy, not even counting more than five thousand insignia and commendations of the honorific orders of Portugal.

When Napoleon was defeated in , the European powers held the Congress of Vienna to reorganize the political map of the continent.

Portugal participated in these negotiations, but given British machinations contrary to the interests of the House of Braganza , Portugal's ambassador to the Congress, the Count of Palmela , counseled the regent to remain in Brazil, as did the powerful Prince Talleyrand , in order to strengthen the ties between metropolis and colony, including the suggestion to elevate Brazil to the condition of a kingdom united to Portugal.

The representative of the United Kingdom also ended up supporting the idea, which resulted in the effective foundation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves on 16 December , a juridical institution rapidly recognized by other nations.

John's mother Queen Maria died 20 March , opening the road for the regent to assume the throne. Though he began to govern as king on that date, he was not immediately consecrated as king; he was acclaimed only on 6 February , with grand festivities.

This made any meaningful marriage to John impossible, despite his show of patience, and only the force of convention had them appear together in public.

While Dona Carlota gained many sympathizers, her plots uniformly failed. Despite that, she managed to influence her husband to involve himself more directly in Spanish colonial politics.

These efforts led to the capture of Montevideo in and the annexation of Cisplatina Province in During the same period, problems arose in finding a wife for John's heir apparent, the future Pedro I of Brazil.

Europe at the time considered Brazil distant, backward and unsafe, so it was not a simple task to find suitable candidates.

Meanwhile, the situation in Portugal was by no means tranquil. Absent its monarch and devastated by the Peninsular War and the consequent mass hunger and enormous exodus of emigrants, [53] the country in practice had become a British protectorate upon the final expulsion of the French.

It was administered by Marshall William Carr Beresford , who governed with an iron fist. From the time John ascended the throne, the Portuguese pressed for his return, initiated liberal rebellions, and formed secret societies with the objective of bringing into session the Portuguese Cortes , which had not met since Similar liberal agitation occurred in Brazil.

In , the Pernambucan Revolt broke out in Recife , a republican movement that established a provisional government in Pernambuco and spread into other Brazilian states; it was put down severely.

A governing junta was set up, with repercussions in Lisbon. It led even to an uprising by the military garrison of Rio de Janeiro itself.

On 30 January , the Cortes met in Lisbon and decreed the formation of a Council of Regency to exercise power in the name of King John.

It freed many political prisoners and demanded the king's immediate return. On 20 April, King John convoked a meeting in Rio to choose deputies to the Constituent Cortes, but the following day, protests in the plaza were put down violently.

In Brazil, the general opinion was that the king's return to Portugal could mean loss of the autonomy Brazil had gained and a return to its prior colonial status.

Under pressure, John tried to find a middle way by sending his son Prince Pedro to Lisbon to grant a constitution and establish the basis of a new government.

The prince, however, already leaning toward liberal ideas, refused. The crisis had gone too far and there was no turning back.

John named Pedro regent for Brazil in his name and left for Lisbon on 25 April after a stay of thirteen years in Brazil, a country he would always miss.

The ships bringing John and his court arrived in Lisbon on 3 July. His return was orchestrated in such a manner as not to imply that the king had been coerced, but in fact a new political environment had already been established.

It called for him to surrender various prerogatives. Dona Carlota refused to follow her husband in agreeing to this, and thus was dispossessed of her political rights and deposed of her title as queen.

Meanwhile, the king lost out in Brazil as well. His son Pedro, opting to stay in that country, led a revolt that proclaimed Brazilian independence on ; as part of this action, he assumed the title of emperor of Brazil.

In any event, later correspondence between the two shows the prince's concern not to disturb his father. The following Portuguese international schools are in the city: [8].

The main hospital of the country is Hospital Ayres de Menezes. Coat of arms. The invention of the white race Second ed. London: Verso.

Themes in West Africa's history. Akyeampong, Emmanuel Kwaku. Athens: Ohio University.

Carlota Joaquina and the infantas were on two other ships. On 5 June he granted amnesty to those involved in the Porto uprising, except for nine officers who were exiled. In Portugal. Under pressure, John tried to find a middle way by Vaditim his son Prince Pedro to Lisbon to grant a constitution and establish the basis of a new government. Difficult negotiations and consultations undertaken in Europe in Rio de Janeiro with British mediation and pressure resulted in the final recognition of the independence on 29 August Pedro III of Portugal. Throughout Mais Konserve stay in Brazil, John formalized the creation of a huge number of institutions and public services and boosted the economy, culture and other areas of national life. The streets of Salvador were deserted, because the governor, the Count of Ponte, preferred to await the prince's orders before permitting the people to Leichtgewicht Boxen him. A3o thesis in Social History of Culture. Maria I of Portugal and Brazil Join our mailing list.
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